Vowel Harmony in Suffixes

In simple terms, suffixation refers to the process of attaching morphemes to stems. Most English speakers are familiar with this concept (or at least with the process). Some examples of suffixation in English include attaching -ing or -ed to verbs to express tense (e.g. baking and baked) and attaching -s/-es to nouns to form plurals …

Exceptions to Vowel Harmony Rules

Although most aspects of Turkish grammar are quite formulaic and fairly regular, as is the case with most languages, you will find exceptions to many of its rules. Just as with English irregular past tense or irregular plurals, motivations for the “irregular” forms are only available in historical context and no discernible rules or patterns …

Turkish Vowel Harmony

Vowel harmony refers to a special type of relationship between the vowels in a word. In this type of relationship, all the vowels in a word are alike each other (in harmony) based on some or all of their features. The rules that describe these relationships are called vowel harmony rules. These rules dictate how …

Turkish Consonants

Names of the consonants in Turkish are formed by suffixing an e /e/ sound at the end (e.g. be, ce, ke,…etc.). The consonants are usually described using three criteria: voiced or voiceless: describes weather the vocal cord is vibrated during articulation place of articulation: the part of the vocal tract where the air flow restriction …

Turkish Vowels

Turkish vowels are said to be of pure quality because there are no diphthongs in Turkish (some even call it boring). That is, the position of the tongue during the articulation of the vowel is fixed from the beginning to the end (no glide motion). This sometimes becomes an issue for English speakers (especially American …

The sounds and alphabet of Turkish

Turkish uses a Latin based script that was implemented in 1928. Because of its relatively recent adaptation, the alphabet, hence written Turkish is highly phonemic. That is, the pronunciation of letters (their corresponding phonemes, sounds) are mostly consistent across different contexts. In other words, there is a one to one relationship between a letter and …

A brief history of Turkish

According to some historical sources, the beginning of the Turks and their language can be traced back to Ashina clan who might have had an Indo-European origin (Klyashtorny & Sinor, 1996, p. 329). The first state bearing the name Türk was established around 552 C.E. (Klyashtorny & Sinor, 1996, p. 327; Findley, 2004, p. 43). …

Introduction to Turkish language

Turkish language is an Altaic language mainly spoken by the inhabitants of the modern day Turkey (approximately 75 million). It belongs to the Southwest branch of Turkic family of languages whose domain extends from Central China in the east to Balkans in the west. As with other Turkic languages, Turkish is a highly agglutinative language …