Genitive Case

Variants: -(n)in, -(n)ın, -(n)un and -(n)ün Genitive marker indicates ownership or relation similar to the English possessive ‘s and of. The possessor is marked with one of four variants of -in: atın nalı  horse-GEN horseshoe-ACC ‘horse’s shoe’ kalemin ucu  pen-GEN tip-ACC ‘tip of the pen’ gölün rengi  lake-GEN color-ACC ‘color of the lake’ unun fiyatı …

Accusative case

Variants: -(y)i, -(y)ı, -(y)u and -(y)ü Definitive objects take on the accusative case marker -i. Can inciri yedi  Can.ABS house.ACC buy.PT ‘Can ate the fig’ The accusative marker -i has four variants based on vowel harmony (If you need a review of the vowels that can appear in suffixes, see Vowel Harmon in Suffixes):. -ü    …

Personal (Possessive) Markers

Similar to the English possessive ‘s, Turkish possessives express possession or relationship. However, in Turkish, possessor identification is more explicit in that the possessed must be marked with one of six personal (possessive) suffixes. All of these suffixes are subject to rounding harmony except the third person plural suffix. In addition, most of these suffixes …

Turkish Pronouns

There are six basic pronouns in Turkish. Singular ben ‘I’ sen ‘you’ o ‘he/she/it’ Plural biz ‘we’ siz ‘you’ onlar ‘they’ As you can deduce from the table above, Turkish lacks gender pronouns (he/she), instead o is used to refer to all third person singular subject and objects. Pronoun dropping (Pro-drop) Pronouns are almost always …

Vowel Harmony in Suffixes

In simple terms, suffixation refers to the process of attaching morphemes to stems. Most English speakers are familiar with this concept (or at least with the process). Some examples of suffixation in English include attaching -ing or -ed to verbs to express tense (e.g. baking and baked) and attaching -s/-es to nouns to form plurals …

Exceptions to Vowel Harmony Rules

Although most aspects of Turkish grammar are quite formulaic and fairly regular, as is the case with most languages, you will find exceptions to many of its rules. Just as with English irregular past tense or irregular plurals, motivations for the “irregular” forms are only available in historical context and no discernible rules or patterns …

Turkish Vowel Harmony

Vowel harmony refers to a special type of relationship between the vowels in a word. In this type of relationship, all the vowels in a word are alike each other (in harmony) based on some or all of their features. The rules that describe these relationships are called vowel harmony rules. These rules dictate how …