Genitive Case

Variants: -(n)in, -(n)ın, -(n)un and -(n)ün Genitive marker indicates ownership or relation similar to the English possessive ‘s and of. The possessor is marked with one of four variants of -in: atın nalı  horse-GEN horseshoe-ACC ‘horse’s shoe’ kalemin ucu  pen-GEN tip-ACC ‘tip of the pen’ gölün rengi  lake-GEN color-ACC ‘color of the lake’ unun fiyatı …

Accusative case

Variants: -(y)i, -(y)ı, -(y)u and -(y)ü Definitive objects take on the accusative case marker -i. Can inciri yedi  Can.ABS house.ACC buy.PT ‘Can ate the fig’ The accusative marker -i has four variants based on vowel harmony (If you need a review of the vowels that can appear in suffixes, see Vowel Harmon in Suffixes):. -ü    …

Turkish Case Markers

Turkish case markers are morphemes (suffixes) that mark nouns for their grammatical functions (roles). There are six noun cases in Turkish. Five of these cases are marked with suffixes (accusative, genitive, dative, locative and ablative) and the remaining one is not (nominative). These cases can be divided into three groups based on their traditional grammatical …

Personal (Possessive) Markers

Similar to the English possessive ‘s, Turkish possessives express possession or relationship. However, in Turkish, possessor identification is more explicit in that the possessed must be marked with one of six personal (possessive) suffixes. All of these suffixes are subject to rounding harmony except the third person plural suffix. In addition, most of these suffixes …

Grammatical Number

Variants: -ler, -lar In Turkish, plurals are formed by suffixing nouns with -ler/-lar. As indicated previously appropriate variant is determined by the nature of the last vowel in the stem (see Vowel Harmony in Suffixes). That is, if the last vowel in the stem is a back vowel then the back vowel variant, -lar is …

Turkish Pronouns

There are six basic pronouns in Turkish. Singular ben ‘I’ sen ‘you’ o ‘he/she/it’ Plural biz ‘we’ siz ‘you’ onlar ‘they’ As you can deduce from the table above, Turkish lacks gender pronouns (he/she), instead o is used to refer to all third person singular subject and objects. Pronoun dropping (Pro-drop) Pronouns are almost always …