Copula ‘to be’

The no longer productive bound stem i- is used to form following ‘to be’ copulas in Turkish (Göksel & Kerslake 2005), idi be.PST ‘was’ imiş be.EVI ‘was’ (hearsay) ise be.COND ‘as if’ iken be.WHILE ‘while’ However, these stand alone forms are rarely heard in modern Turkish (except in Turkish soap operas about Ottomans). Instead their …