Grammatical Number


Variants: -ler, -lar

In Turkish, plurals are formed by suffixing nouns with -ler/-lar. As indicated previously appropriate variant is determined by the nature of the last vowel in the stem (see Vowel Harmony in Suffixes). That is, if the last vowel in the stem is a back vowel then the back vowel variant, -lar is suffixed to the stem to form plurals (and vice-versa for the front vowels):

(1) evler
house.PL
‘houses’

(2) çocuklar
child.PL
‘children’

Singular forms are used in conjunction with numbers:

(3) iki çocuk
two child.SG
‘two children’

(4) bir çok kelime
one many word
‘lots of words’

Plural markers are often attached to proper names to indicate a group of people. For example, Özgürler means Özgür and his family (or his friends based on context). Occasionally, plural forms are also used with numbers to indicate distinct or well known groups of people or things as in Üç Silahşörler ‘the Three Musketeers’ (Lewis, 2002)

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