Turkish language is an Altaic language mainly spoken by the inhabitants of the modern day Turkey (approximately 75 million). It belongs to the Southwest branch of Turkic family of languages whose domain extends from Central China in the east to Balkans in the west. As with other Turkic languages, Turkish is a highly agglutinative language that relies heavily on suffixation for its morphosyntax. Although, it has a subject-object-verb (SOV) word order, the order is often changed to express pragmatics. The flexibility to change word order is possible because of the use of case markings in its nominative-accusative alignment system.
As with most languages, modern Turkish was influenced by many other languages during its evolution (and continue to do so). Two of these languages stand out from the rest in terms of their lasting and deep effect on the language. If you have ever studied Arabic or Farsi (Persian), you will right away recognize many of the words used in Turkish (admittedly some might take some effort) as “borrowings” (will they ever return them?) from these two. As such, I think with a brief history is in order.